DOI: 10.17151/rasv.2022.24.2.6
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Zehmisch, P. . (2022). ¿Llevar a los subalternos al habla? Investigando la Resistencia Anárquica a la Modernidad Hegemónica. Revista De Antropología Y Sociología : Virajes, 24(2), 110–131.


Philipp Zehmisch
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Este artículo pretende examinar críticamente la exigencia de Gayatri Spivak (1992) de deshacer la subalternidad mediante la inserción de los subalternos
en el circuito de la modernidad hegemónica. Para Spivak, trabajar para los subalternos no exige hablar por ellos, sino que implica facilitar sus actos de
habla. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología de la anarquía, la apertura de la comunicación política hacia la inclusión del discurso subalterno es,
por un lado, un objetivo esencial. Es congruente con los principios democráticos básicos de la toma de decisiones consensuada entre los grupos sociales que viven fuera o al margen de la influencia del Estado. Por otro lado, la insistencia en incluir a los subalternos en la hegemonía conlleva una paradoja inherente: muchos subalternos, que recurren a formas de vida anárquicas, huyen del Estado y de sus estructuras comunicativas como estrategia de supervivencia cultural y política. Mi ejemplo etnográfico de las islas Andamán, en la India, aborda esta tensión. Me centro en la historia subalterna y en las prácticas de resistencia de los llamados Ranchis, Adivasis (primeros pobladores, Pueblos Indígenas) de la región de las colinas de la India central, que emigraron a las Andamans como trabajadores contratados y se asentaron en bosques marginales. La evasión de los Ranchis del Estado hacia los márgenes, posibilitada por las prácticas de subsistencia, presenta una alternativa a la imperiosa demanda de Spivak de incorporar a los subalternos al discurso: una inclusión de los Ranchis en los circuitos de la hegemonía les beneficiaría moderadamente en cuanto a su acceso al Estado y a la economía, pero, al mismo tiempo, también implicaría una pérdida de su autarquía parcial, así como de su autonomía cultural y sociopolítica respecto al mundo exterior. 

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