DOI: 10.17151/rasv.2022.24.2.6
Cómo citar
Zehmisch P. (2022). ¿Llevar a los subalternos al habla? Investigando la Resistencia Anárquica a la Modernidad Hegemónica. Revista de Antropología y Sociología : Virajes, 24(2), 110-131.


Philipp Zehmisch
Perfil Google Scholar


Este artículo pretende examinar críticamente la exigencia de Gayatri Spivak (1992) de deshacer la subalternidad mediante la inserción de los subalternos
en el circuito de la modernidad hegemónica. Para Spivak, trabajar para los subalternos no exige hablar por ellos, sino que implica facilitar sus actos de
habla. Desde la perspectiva de una antropología de la anarquía, la apertura de la comunicación política hacia la inclusión del discurso subalterno es,
por un lado, un objetivo esencial. Es congruente con los principios democráticos básicos de la toma de decisiones consensuada entre los grupos sociales que viven fuera o al margen de la influencia del Estado. Por otro lado, la insistencia en incluir a los subalternos en la hegemonía conlleva una paradoja inherente: muchos subalternos, que recurren a formas de vida anárquicas, huyen del Estado y de sus estructuras comunicativas como estrategia de supervivencia cultural y política. Mi ejemplo etnográfico de las islas Andamán, en la India, aborda esta tensión. Me centro en la historia subalterna y en las prácticas de resistencia de los llamados Ranchis, Adivasis (primeros pobladores, Pueblos Indígenas) de la región de las colinas de la India central, que emigraron a las Andamans como trabajadores contratados y se asentaron en bosques marginales. La evasión de los Ranchis del Estado hacia los márgenes, posibilitada por las prácticas de subsistencia, presenta una alternativa a la imperiosa demanda de Spivak de incorporar a los subalternos al discurso: una inclusión de los Ranchis en los circuitos de la hegemonía les beneficiaría moderadamente en cuanto a su acceso al Estado y a la economía, pero, al mismo tiempo, también implicaría una pérdida de su autarquía parcial, así como de su autonomía cultural y sociopolítica respecto al mundo exterior. 

Anderson, C. (2004). Legible bodies: Race, criminality and colonialism in South Asia. Berg.

Ahmed, A. S. (1982). Nomadism as Ideological Expression: The Case of Gomal Nomads. Economic and Political Weekly, 17(27), 1101–1106.

Amborn, H. (1993). Handlungsfähiger Diskurs. In W. Schmied-Kowarzik & J. Stagl (Eds),Grundfragen der Ethnologie: Beiträge zur gegenwärtigen Diskussion (pp. 129-
150). Dietrich Reimer Verlag.

Amborn, H. (2016). Das Recht als Hort der Anarchie. Gesellschaften ohne Herrschaft und Staat. Mattes & Seitz.

Barclay, H. (2009). People without government: an anthropology of anarchy. Kahn & Averill.

Arcilla, C. A.C. (2019). Ethics and Personal Politics in the engaged Ethnography of Urban Subalternity. Aghamtao, 27(1), 57–87.

Alexandrakis, O. (2013). Neoliberalism and the new agora: Exploring survival, emergence, and political subjectivity among pluralized subaltern communities in Athens, Greece. Anthropological Quarterly, 86(1), 77–105.

Ashcroft, B, Griffiths, G. & Tiffin, H. (1998). Key concepts in post-colonial studies. Routledge.

Bates, C. & Carter, M. (1992). Tribal migration in India and beyond. In G. Prakash (Ed.), The world of the rural labourer in colonial India (pp. 205–47). Oxford University Press India.

Bharadwaj, A. (2013). Subaltern biology? Local biologies, Indian odysseys, and the pursuit of human embryonic stem cell therapies. Medical anthropology: Cross-cultural studies in health and illness, 32(4), 359–373.

Borde, R. (2017). Differential Subalterns in the Niyamgiri Movement in India, Interventions, 19(4), 566–582.

Chakrabarty, D. (2010). Europa als Provinz: Perspektiven postkolonialer Geschichtsschreibung. Campus.

Chatterjee, P. & Jeganathan, P. (Eds). (2000). Communities, gender and violence: Subaltern studies XI. Columbia University Press.

Chatterjee, P. (2004). The politics of the governed: Reflections on popular politics in most of the world. Permanent Black.

Chatterjee, P. (2010). Reflections on “Can the Subaltern Speak?”: Subaltern studies after Spivak. In Rosalind C. Morris (Ed.), Can the subaltern speak? Reflections on the history of an idea (pp. 81-86). Columbia University Press.

Chatterjee, P. (2011). Lineages of political society: studies in postcolonial democracy. Columbia University Press.

Clastres, P. (2008). Archäologie der Gewalt. Diaphanes.

Clifford, J. & Marcus, G. (1986). Writing culture: The poetics and politics of ethnography. University of California Press.

Dhawan, N. (2007a). Impossible speech: on the politics of silence and violence. Akademia Verlag.

Dhawan, N. (2007b). Can the Subaltern speak German? And other risky questions: Migrant hybridism versus subalternity.

Dhawan, N. & Randeria, S. (2013). Perspectives on globalization and subalternity. In G. Huggan (Ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Postcolonial Studies (pp. 559–586), Oxford University Press.

Fadlalla, A. H. (2009). Contested borders of (in)humanity: Sudanese refugees and the mediation of suffering and subaltern visibilities. Urban anthropology and studies
of cultural systems and world economic development, 38(1). 79–120.

Fortes, M. & Evans-Pritchard, E. E. (1940). African political systems. Oxford University Press.

Georgiou, M. (2017). Does the subaltern speak? Migrant voices in digital Europe. Popular Communication, 16(1), 45–57.

Ghosh, K. (1999). A market for aboriginality: Primitivism and race classification in the indentured labour market of colonial India. In G. Bhadra, G. Prakash & S. Tharu (Eds), Subaltern studies x: writings on South Asian history and society (pp. 8-48), Oxford University Press India.

Gibson, T. & Sillander, K. (Ed.). (2011). Anarchic solidarity: Autonomy, equality, and fellowship in Southeast Asia. Yale Southeast Asia Studies.

Graeber, D. (2008). Frei von Herrschaft: Fragmente einer anarchistischen Anthropologie. Peter Hammer Verlag.

Graeber, D. & Wengrow, D. (2021). The dawn of everything: A new history of humanity. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Gupta, A. (2012). Red tape: Bureaucracy, structural violence, and poverty in India. Duke University Press.

Hale, C. (2007). In praise of “reckless minds”: Making a case for activist anthropology. In L. Field & R. Fox (Eds.), Anthropology put to work (pp. 103–127), Berg.

Hymes, D. (1974). Reinventing anthropology. Vintage Books.

Jalais, A. (2013). Geographies and identities: Subaltern Partition stories along Bengal’s Southern frontier. In D. Gellner (Ed.), Borderland lives in Northern South Asia (pp. 245–265). Duke University Press.

Lagalisse, E. (2013). Gossip as direct action. In L. Phillips & S. Cole (Eds.), Contesting publics – Feminism, activism, ethnography (pp. 112–137), Pluto Press.

Lagalisse, E. (2016). “Good politics”: Property, intersectionality, and the making of the anarchist self. [PhD thesis. Department of Anthropology, McGill University].

Leach, E. R. (1954). Political systems of highland Burma: A study of Kachin social structure. Bell. Maine, H. S. (1861). Ancient law, Henry Holt and Company.

Meret, S. (2020). What can we learn from Gramsci today? Migrant subalternity and refugee movements: Perspectives from the Lampedusa in Hamburg, In F. Antonini, A.
Bernstein L. Fusaro & R. Jackson (Eds.), Revisiting Gramsci’s Notebooks (pp. 209–230), Brill.

Moore, D. (1998). Subaltern struggles and the politics of place: Remapping resistance in Zimbabwe’s Eastern Highlands. Cultural Anthropology, 13(3). 344–381.

Morgan, L. H. (1877). Ancient society.

Morris, B. (1986). Forest traders: a socio-economic study of the Hill Pandaram. Athlone Press.

Morris, B. (2014). Anthropology, ecology, and anarchism: a Brian Morris reader. PM Press.

Nilsen, A. G. (2018). Adivasis and the state: Subaltern citizenship in India’s Bhil heartland. Cambridge University Press.

Nur, M. (2012). The Palestine Nakba: Decolonising history, narrating the subaltern, reclaiming memory. Zed Books.

Pandey, G. (2010). Subaltern citizens and their histories: Investigations from India and the USA. Routledge.

Pandey, G. (2016). Racialization of subaltern populations across the globe: The politics of difference. The Review of Black Political Economy, 43(2), 87-99.

Pandya, V. (2009). In the forest: Visual and material worlds of Andamanese history (1858-2006). University Press of America.

Rabasa, J. (2010). Without history: Subaltern studies, the Zapatista insurgency, and the specter of history. University of Pittsburgh Press.

Radcliffe-Brown, A. R. (1922). The Andaman islanders. Weidenfeld and Nicholson.

Raju, G. (2010). Ranchiwallahs’ battle cry. The Light of Andamans, 35(2).

Sahlins, M. D. (1974). Stone age economics. Tavistock Publications.

Salwa, I. (2013). Urban Subalterns in the Arab revolutions: Cairo and Damascus in comparative perspective. Comparative Studies in History and Society, 55(4). 865–894.

Schäfers, M. (2011). Writing against loss: Kurdish women, subaltern authorship, and the politics of voice in contemporary Turkey. Journal of the Royal Anthropological
Institute, 23(3), 543-561.

Scott, J. C. (1985). Weapons of the weak: Everyday forms of peasant resistance. Yale University Press.

Scott, J. C. (2009). The art of not being governed: An anarchist history of upland South East Asia. Yale University Press.

Sen, S. (2000). Disciplining punishment: Colonialism and convict society in the Andaman Islands. Oxford University Press India.

Shah, A. (2010). In the shadows of the state: Indigenous politics, environmentalism, and insurgency in Jharkhand, India. Duke University Press.

Spivak, G. Ch. (1988). Can the subaltern speak? In C. Nelson & L. Grossberg (Eds.), Marxism and the interpretation of culture (pp. 271–313), University of Illinois Press.

Spivak, G. Ch. (1992). Interview with Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak: New nation writers conference in South Africa (Interviewer Leon de Kock). Ariel: a Review of International English Literature, 23(3), 29–47.

Spivak, G. Ch. (2000). The new subaltern: A silent interview. In V. Chaturvedi (Ed.), Mapping subaltern studies and the postcolonial (pp. 324–5). Verso.

Sundar, N. (2007). Subalterns and sovereigns: an anthropological history of Bastar (1854-2006), second edition, Oxford University Press India.

Tinker, H. (1974). A new system of slavery: The export of Indian labour overseas 1830-1920. Oxford University Press.

Vaidik, A. (2010). Imperial Andamans: Colonial encounter and island history. Palgrave Macmillan.

Van Schendel, W. (2002). Geographies of knowing, geographies of ignorance: Jumping scale in Southeast Asia. Environment and Planning: Society and Space, 20(6), 647–68.

Zehmisch, P. (2012). A xerox of India: Policies and politics of migration in the Andaman Islands. In Working papers in social and cultural anthropology, LMU Munich, Vol 2. Institut für Ethnologie.

Zehmisch, P. (2016). The invisible architects of Andaman: Manifestations of aboriginal migration from Ranchi. In F. Heidemann & P. Zehmisch (Eds), Manifestations of
history: time, space and community in the Andaman Islands (pp. 122–138). Primus.

Zehmisch, P. (2017). Mini-India: The politics of migration and subalternity in the Andaman Islands. Oxford University Press.


La descarga de datos todavía no está disponible.
Sistema OJS - Metabiblioteca |