DOI: 10.17151/biosa.2015.14.2.8
Cómo citar
Chávez M., Erazo N. C., Reina D. A., & Esparza M. (2015). Métodos de tipificación y epidemiología molecular de Staphylococcus aureus con resistencia a la meticilina. Biosalud, 14(2), 81 - 90. https://doi.org/10.17151/biosa.2015.14.2.8

Autores/as

Mónica Chávez
Universidad Santiago de Cali
monikchavez@gmail.com
Natalia C. Erazo
Hospital Local Puerto Asís. Putumayo
cadanati1990@hotmail.com
Daniel A. Reina
Hospital Guachucal. Pasto
daniel.reina87@hotmail.com
Mario Esparza
Universidad de Antofagasta
mrodrigount@yahoo.com

Resumen

El interés actual del estudio de Staphylococcus aureus deriva de su elevada frecuencia de cepas resistentes a los antibióticos que causa frecuentes brotes de infección, especialmente, el S. aureus con resistencia a meticilina (SARM). El objetivo de esta revisión fue estudiar la estructura genética poblacional y el origen de los aislamientos de SARM. La tipificación del cassette cromosómico mec estafilocócico es el método más importante para identificar y definir la naturaleza clonal del S. aureus con resistencia a meticilina. Los estudios de epidemiología molecular evidencian un patrón de diseminación de unas pocas cepas que son las responsables del importante problema mundial. Existe el predominio de clones pandémicos de SARM asociado a infecciones hospitalarias (SARM-AH), que ha han sido reemplazados en la actualidad por clones de origen comunitario (SARM-AC). En Colombia, predomina el clon pediátrico y el chileno entre los aislamientos hospitalarios. Sin embargo, en la actualidad una variante del clon comunitario USA300 prevalece en las infecciones adquiridas en la comunidad y en el hospital, desplazando los clones hospitalarios como ocurre en el resto de mundo. El entendimiento de la epidemiología y clonalidad de las infecciones por S. aureus tiene importantes implicaciones en el control de la emergencia de cepas con multirresistencia y el esparcimiento de clones resistentes y sensibles a meticilina.

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