DOI: 10.17151/bccm.2020.24.2.13
Cómo citar
Guzmán-Piedrahita Óscar A., Zamorano-Montañez C., & López-Nicora H. D. (2020). Interacciones fisiológicas de plantas con nematodos fitoparásitos: una revisión. Boletín Científico. Centro de Museos, 24(2), 190 - 205. https://doi.org/10.17151/bccm.2020.24.2.13

Autores/as

Óscar Adrián Guzmán-Piedrahita
Universidad de Caldas
oscar.guzman@ucaldas.edu.co
http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2584-3218
Perfil Google Scholar
Carolina Zamorano-Montañez
Universidad de Caldas
carolina.zamorano@ucaldas.edu.co
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-5598-9560
Perfil Google Scholar
Horacio Daniel López-Nicora
Universidad San Carlos
lopez-nicora@usc.edu.py
http://orcid.org/0000-0002-9672-9589
Perfil Google Scholar

Resumen

Los nematodos fitoparásitos se encuentran entre los patógenos de plantas más perjudiciales a través del mundo, afectando el crecimiento y rendimiento de los cultivos. La respuesta de las plantas al daño ocasionado por los nematodos está estrechamente relacionada con su ubicación donde se alimentan, como ectoparásitos o endoparásitos, y los tipos de daño celular que producen, tales como la destrucción de células ocasionada por especies de Pratylenchus y Radopholus; la sincitia, por especies de Heterodera y Globodera; y la formación de células gigantes, por especies de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de esta revisión es analizar el alcance de los resultados de investigaciones sobre el entendimiento de las implicaciones fisiológicas que tiene la interacción de la planta con nematodos fitoparásitos, principalmente los que destruyen la célula, forman sincitia y células gigantes. En general, los nematodos reducen la absorción de agua a través de las raíces de las plantas y crean un desbalance de macro y micronutrimentos que inducen cambios fisiológicos en estas y en los procesos fotosintéticos. Los nematodos fitoparásitos incluidos en esta revisión, independiente del tipo de daño que ocasionan, reducen las funciones fisiológicas de las raíces y de la parte aérea produciendo pérdidas considerables en rendimiento. Se requiere más investigación que relacione el estado nutricional de las plantas con las prácticas de nutrición edáfica y foliar, que conlleve a una mejor respuesta fisiológica del hospedante, lo cual permitiría un menor impacto del parasitismo de los nematodos en las plantas, contribuyendo al manejo integrado de estos

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